Interviews at IMERSA 2016 – Recent Challenges

It’s been fascinating to see IMERSA evolve and mature over the last few years. And since things are moving so fast, I wanted to document the challenges being faced in the immersive community with a series of interviews.

Last year at IMERSA there were nervous murmurings of VR, but this year there is clear excitement. It’s particularly interesting to see fulldome producers realize that they already possess the tools, skills, and ultra high resolution workflows to create polished VR experiences.

IMERSA 2016: View Presentation Recordings

Select presentations available on the IMERSA Vimeo page. Below are my favs:
How Are Museums & Educators Using VR-AR Today / The VR and AR Explosion
Immersion Expanding: New Opportunities for Immersive Experiences
Challenges and Strategies for Producers
The Future of Immersion
Ambisonics Sound Technology
What’s Never Been Seen: Successful Visualizing for Fulldome Storytelling
Shooting 360 Trials and Successes
Proven Methods for a Faster Render
Visual Immersion for Greater Learning Gains in Digital Domes
Let’s Play: Using Games to Entertain and Educate Audiences in the Planetarium
Real Developments in Virtual Reality

— Jenny Carden /
— Greg Downing / xRez Studio
— Troy Whitmer / Sky-Skan
— Jay Heinz / Morehead Planetarium
— David Merrell / Clark Planetarium
— Ken Ackerman / California Academy of Sciences
— Dan Neafus / Denver Museum of Nature and Science
— Orion McCaw / Roundhouse Productions
— Mark Petersen / Loch Ness Productions
— Jay Lamm / Louisiana Art & Science Museum
— Annette Sotheran-Barnett / Sky-Skan

The Dome Dialogues – Andrew Hazelden

An interview with the man that needs no introduction! Andrew Hazelden and I discuss the many vital production tools that he has been creating for fulldome and VR. We discuss in-depth tools such as: Domemaster3D, PlayblastVR, RocketComp, Domemaster Fusion Macros.

0m 6s – Intro
3m 53s – RocketComp
5m 58s – PlayblastVR
17m 8s – Andrew’s History
20m 14s – Domemaster3D
41m 8s – Domemaster Fusion Macros
1h 27m 41s – Maxwell Render Toolbox

Andrew Hazelden is a visual effects artist and co-founder of Dover Studios. He regularly develops tools, tutorials, and documentation for VR/fulldome production, photography, visual effects, and electronics. He has passion for sharing knowledge and also enjoys writing about hobby experiments he does on the weekends and the tools he uses everyday. A few examples of his wide range of interests include building an underwater ROV, flying a model airplane, compiling a mental ray shader, creating a time-lapse video, or doing stereoscopic 3D photography.

Blueprint to Blastoff: Free Engineering Materials for the Planetarium or Classroom

Talia-Bio-PhotoWe are offering 3 distinct educational modules, focusing on aspects of spacecraft engineering, to anyone with a planetarium or classroom who would like to use them. They supplement, but are independent of our newest show From Dream to Discovery: Inside NASA and are being shared free of charge.

This article was written by Talia Sepersky. She currently works as a planetarium educator at the Charles Hayden Planetarium, Museum of Science, Boston.

Intro: Putting the “E” back in “STEM”
Module 1: Fixing the Hubble Space Telescope
Module 2: Gravity And Space Travel
Module 3: Design a Mission
The Guides
Teacher Bundles

Intro: Putting the “E” back in “STEM”

When it comes to STEM, planetarium shows tend to be very good at covering the science, technology, and even the math portions, but engineering often gets left out. To help fill this void, in 2013 we, the staff of the Charles Hayden Planetarium at the Museum of Science, Boston, teamed up with NASA to make a planetarium show about spacecraft engineering. The result of this partnership is the show “From Dream to Discovery: Inside NASA,” which explores what it takes to design, test, build, and fly a successful space mission.

As much as we would have liked to, we could not talk in detail about every part of spacecraft engineering during the show. However, through the partnership with NASA, we were able to expand on a few engineering topics from the show in three separate, supplementary education modules. We are extremely pleased to be able to offer these modules to anyone who wants to use them completely free of charge.

The modules themselves have three very different lengths, styles, and topics, and are designed to be presented in different ways. They can be used on a planetarium dome, and a flatscreen version permits their use on a conventional screen as well. Although each goes into depth on topics that are raised in “From Dream to Discovery: Inside NASA,” they all stand on their own and require no knowledge of the show itself. The three modules are: “Fixing the Hubble Space Telescope”, “Gravity and Space Travel”, and “Design a Mission”.

Module 1: Fixing the Hubble Space Telescope

We’ve found that many people in our audiences know that there was something wrong with Hubble when it launched, and that it was eventually fixed. However, few people tend to be aware of the details. The first of our modules, “Fixing the Hubble Space Telescope,” goes into some of those details. It’s the most straightforward of the three modules, consisting of a single video approximately eight minutes long. Large portions of the narration are undertaken by Dr. Jeffrey Hoffman, a former astronaut who flew on the first Hubble servicing mission.

With this module we wanted to focus on a specific case of spacecraft engineering, and Hubble Servicing Mission 1 provides a fantastic real life example. We also wanted to bring in the idea that failures can be instructive.

This module starts by introducing Hubble in space, and then describing how astronomers realized the telescope had a flaw, using some of Hubble’s earliest observations to make the point. It then takes Hubble apart to show the primary mirror and allow Dr. Hoffman to describe exactly what went wrong with making it.

While still looking at a cutaway view of Hubble, Dr. Hoffman goes on to explain the “fix” designed by engineers to repair Hubble, describing the arrangement of mirrors that allowed light entering Hubble’s tube to be refocused before landing on the detection instruments. While he is providing the narration, the visuals show this in action, following a light path all the way through Hubble to the instruments.

The module then moves on to the installation of the new optics on Hubble, with Dr. Hoffman talking about the work on the shuttle mission. This is accompanied by visuals of Hubble and the space shuttle in space, as well as actual video clips from the mission. In one of our favorite parts of this module, Dr. Hoffman shares his story of receiving the phone call that let him know the fix had worked, as well as some thoughts on what it felt like to actually touch Hubble. Some of the visuals for this portion include Hubble images, comparing pictures of the same objects before and after the repair.

The module concludes with the idea that we can learn from failures like Hubble’s. To quote Dr. Hoffman at the module’s end, “The important thing, though, is if you do have a failure, you really need to be able to learn from it. To have a failure that you don’t learn anything from, that’s tragic.”

Module 2: Gravity And Space Travel

It turns out that describing what goes on during a gravity assist can be tricky business. This module introduces some of the mechanics of the momentum transfer that happens during a gravity assist maneuver through Earth-based and space-based examples, as well as describing some of the various ways gravity assists can be used in a space mission.

Since gravity assists can be a tough subject to teach and the depth a presenter goes into will vary widely with different audiences, we designed this module to be as flexible as possible. It is broken up into five segments, each about 1-2 minutes in length (for a total of about 7 minutes of video). Each segment can be presented independently of the others if the presenter only wants to use some but not all. They can also follow after each other, with each segment building on the one before.

We created this format with the idea of using live interpretations in between each of the segments, to reiterate or emphasize the content covered in the previous segment and set up for the next one. However—maximum flexibility!—they can also be strung together to create one unbroken video, depending on the presenter’s preferred style. The core ideas behind momentum transfer and gravity assists are presented in segments 2 and 3, so our recommendation is that at least these two be used.

Segment 1 is relatively straightforward. It starts with the idea that spacecraft travel is often not as easy as pointing the spacecraft at its destination and giving it a push. It introduces the terms “gravity assist” and “momentum transfer” and also defines the word “momentum.”

Segment 2’s purpose is to help the audience gain a better understand of the transfer of momentum using an Earth-based example. To this end, we enlisted the help of a local roller derby team. We wanted to emphasize the idea that gravity assists work not just because the planets are large (i.e. have a lot of gravity) but because they are also moving (i.e. have a lot of momentum).

For this, we had one skater (designated Skater One) hold still and whip her teammates around her as they approach. While her teammates’ paths change, their speed remains more or less the same. We then recreated the same scenario with Skater One also in motion. This time, when she whips her teammates around, their speed increases noticeably even as Skater One’s decreases, due to the momentum transfer between them.

Segment 3 builds on the Earth-based example with a space-based one, specifically the New Horizons gravity assist flyby of Jupiter in February 2007. It starts by looking at what would have happened if New Horizons had gone directly from Earth to Pluto, then looks at the Jupiter flyby. The visuals show an overhead view of New Horizons approaching Jupiter and then visibly increasing its speed as it flies past. This segment uses some actual numbers to get across how much momentum Jupiter has to spare and to emphasize the fact that the planet is, for all practical purposes, not actually affected by losing some. It ends by describing the changes in New Horizons’ speed and flight time as a result of the flyby.

Since Segment 3 presents how a gravity assist can be used to speed a spacecraft up, Segment 4 explores how one can be used to slow a spacecraft down. It shows how the angle at which a spacecraft approaches a planet determines whether the planet transfers momentum to the spacecraft (to speed the spacecraft up) or the spacecraft transfers momentum to the planet (to slow the spacecraft down). It also re-emphasizes the idea that, no matter what the spacecraft does, it will have no practical effect on the planet.

The final segment, Segment 5, brings up the use of multiple gravity assists in a single mission, requiring careful planning many years in advance. To conclude, it loops back to the idea raised in Segment 1 that many space missions are only possible with the use of gravity assists (showing some of the rather convoluted paths these missions took), and that by making clever use of them we have vastly expanded our knowledge of the Solar System.

Module 3: Design a Mission

The “Design a Mission” module is the most interactive of the three and requires a live presentation. In this activity the audience, using information provided to them by the presenter, designs a spacecraft to search for signs of water in the Solar System. They have to choose a destination and then, based on that destination, a power source and whether their spacecraft will be a lander or orbiter. If they design their spacecraft well to suit their destination, the mission will succeed. If they do not, the mission will fail (and how it fails depends on the spacecraft design).

The module itself is made up of thirteen video clips to incorporate all the possible outcomes of the audience’s decisions. In total, the video clips make up about 35 minutes of footage, but a presenter should only need a fraction of that during any given presentation.

The first clip represents the audience’s first decision: will their spacecraft travel to Mars or Saturn in search of evidence of water? The visual for this clip is fairly basic, with images of both of those planets on the screen.

Once they’ve chosen the destination, the second clip represents the audience’s next decision: will the spacecraft be an orbiter or a lander? The presenter may want to provide the audience with some of the benefits and disadvantages of each, or ask the audience to come up with some on their own. The visual is of the two different styles of spacecraft. The “lander” option is based roughly on Cassini with a Huygens-style lander attached to its side.

The third decision is whether to make the spacecraft solar or nuclear-powered, and there are two clips that can potentially be used depending on whether the audience chose an orbiter or a lander. If they chose “lander,” the corresponding clip shows two versions of the lander-style spacecraft, one with solar panels and one without (the nuclear reactor is visible on the bottom edge of the nuclear-powered spacecraft, but is small and not immediately obvious like the solar panels). If they chose “orbiter” the visual is the same, with the orbiter-style spacecraft instead. Again, the presenter may want to make sure the audience knows the benefits and drawbacks of each choice.

Now that they have designed their spacecraft, it’s time to send it to the chosen planet and see if it succeeds. There are eight different clips to represent the eight possible outcomes of the audience’s choices. All start with a liftoff from Earth and a view of the spacecraft moving towards its destination. What happens once it starts moving depends on how well the spacecraft was designed.

The four Mars scenarios (nuclear orbiter, nuclear lander, solar orbiter, and solar lander) all succeed. The two lander scenarios make use of the landing sequence of the Curiosity rover for visuals. The landers will find evidence for water in the form of “blueberries,” frost, and silica deposits. The orbiters will find evidence of water from seeing river channels, hydrogen deposits, and rampart craters.

It’s much harder to succeed at Saturn, and only one scenario, the nuclear-powered orbiter, will lead to success. If the audience chose a solar-powered spacecraft, then as it moves through space towards Saturn the picture will turn to static to represent the spacecraft losing power and shutting down. If they chose a nuclear-powered lander, they will see a rather stunning sequence of their lander entering the atmosphere, heating up, and exploding. If they chose a nuclear-powered orbiter, they will find evidence of water in the geysers on Enceladus and in Saturn’s E Ring.

Since not all of the mission designs succeed, the presenter may wish to talk about failure in spacecraft engineering. To this end, we wanted to show audiences that the professionals also sometimes don’t get it right. The final clip shows images from four real life failed missions from different countries, specifically the Vanguard rocket, the Mars Climate Orbiter, the Phobos-Grunt mission, and the Akatsuki mission. As with the end of the “Fixing Hubble” module, the idea is to emphasize that failures happen, and that the important thing is to learn from them when they do.

The Guides

Between them, these three modules present a lot of information, some of it very specific. To make them as easy as possible for a large variety of institutions to use, we’ve also created planetarian guides to go with each. Our hope is that a presenter with no background in any of these three topics can make an effective presentation on any or all of them using just the material found in the corresponding planetarian guide. In addition to the script for the module, a set of FAQs, and a glossary, each guide contains copious background information as well as some suggestions for presentation.

The “Fixing Hubble” guide includes a layout of Hubble’s optics, even more detail about the flaw and how it was fixed, a brief breakdown of each of NASA’s Hubble servicing missions, and a list of Hubble specifications.

The “Gravity and Space Travel” guide goes into greater detail about the mechanics of gravity assists, how momentum is transferred, and why the spacecraft’s trajectory changes. It also looks at the usefulness of gravity assists on specific missions and provides a list of missions that have made notable uses of gravity assists. In the script section, it provides some guidelines for live interpretation in between the video segments as well instructions on how to recreate the roller skater demo from Segment 2 in house, using either staff or audience members.

The “Design a Mission” guide includes specific descriptions of each of the visuals in the clips and what they are designed to represent. There is an outline for the progression of the module, with some guidelines for discussion, background information on the pros and cons of landers, orbiters, solar power, and nuclear power, and a description of why each mission succeeds or fails. There is also a list of all of the video clips included with this module.

Separate from the planetarian guides, there is a set of educator guides for teachers using the modules in a standard classroom setting. The educator guides are geared more towards using the modules as part of a lesson in a school environment rather than a presentation in a planetarium show, and the information they include is not as detailed as that in the planetarian guides. There are also educator guides for topics not included in the modules, including “Waves and Information Transfer” and “Infrared Astronomy,” which also expand a bit on topics raised in the show “From Dream to Discovery.”


To ensure that many different institutions, classrooms, and other settings can make use of our modules, we are offering them in a variety of formats. The modules are all available in 1K, 2K, and 4K fulldome versions for planetarium domes. There are also flat versions available for use in standard classrooms or for anyone using a flatscreen projector (complete with captions).

4k domemaster downloads are available on the ESO Fulldome Archive.

Teacher Bundles

The Teacher Bundles for “Fixing Hubble” and “Gravity Assist” include the flatscreen captioned versions of the modules as well as the educator guides. The classroom version of “Design a Mission” is web-based, so the Teacher Bundle for that module includes the educator guide and link to the web-based activity. The modules page also includes a Teacher Bundle with the “Waves and Information Transfer” and “Infrared Astronomy” educator guides.

Copyright 2015 International Planetarium Society; article used with permission.

This material is based upon work supported by NASA under grant number NNX12AL19G. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed are those of the Museum of Science, Boston and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).

The Dome Dialogues – Ethan Bach

An interview with Ethan Bach discussing some of his recent work on Morphos (Fulldome Artist in Residence), IFAA (International Fulldome Arts Alliance), and BETA – Emerging Technology Arts.

0m 5s – Intro
0m 22s – What have you been working on recently?
1m 51s – What is Morphos: Artists in Residence?
2m 22s – What inspired you to start the program?
4m 3s – What medium do the artists typically work in?
6m 12s – How did you come to work in fulldome?
9m 56s – What is vDome?
12m 27s – What is IFAA: International Fulldome Arts Alliance?
15m 50s – What is your big dream for IFAA?
20m 25s – What do you wish was possible?
25m 58s – Have you experimented with dome interactivity?
30m 16s – Fulldome business competition

Quotes from the Interview
“I’m currently working on IFAA: the International Fulldome Arts Alliance. Last year at the IX Symposium 2014 in Montreal, a bunch of us got together since we had been thinking about this for a long time. The whole idea of expanding the arts in fulldome and how do we do that. How do we get existing venues and people who have portable domes to get on board with this idea that there needs to be alternative content. So we decided that we would start the IFAA and our mission is to create an open alliance where fulldome venues and artists can come together and start interacting and planning.”

“As a video artist, I’ve always been interested in getting to the emotional experience of the viewer. Trying to help the viewer grasp something that maybe they don’t understand or challenging their views on something. I find that hitting the emotional part of the viewer is the easiest way to do that. And once you add immersive and interactive, it just takes it so much further than you could ever hope for. I’m always trying to express it in a feeling, idea, or concept.”

“The challenge that comes in for me is that we had five artists during the Morphos fulldome artist in residence program and they all have different mediums that they each focus on. And thats what I love; the need to focus on the artist staying within their own skill set. So some of them were doing live action shots or computer renders. One artist had shot fisheye photography of dolphins prior to the residency. So there was a lot of different content that we were working with. We did a weeks worth of workshops and then the artists just have to pound out the work and we provide them with support. And for this upcoming program we are adding a production assistant, so they have help in getting their work ready for a dome preview.”

Ethan Bach is the CEO of BETA – Emerging Technology Arts, which specializes in immersive and interactive digital environments, especially fulldome. He received an MFA in Electronic Arts from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in 2008 and BA in Media Production from The Evergreen State College in 1996. His expertise in immersive video art and project management builds from almost 20 years of experience.

Bach served as Principal Investigator for a Department of Defense (DOD) grant developing interactivity for fulldome and a research associate for a National Science Foundation grant developing tools and content for fulldome environments in his former position as the Digital Dome Manager at the Institute of American Indian Arts (IAIA). In just two and a half years he developed five dome courses, an artist in residence program, curated several art shows and created vDome with Charles Veasey. vDome is the world’s first software for the digital dome that runs off a single computer and allows for easy plug and play, VJing, interactive art, and gaming. vDome is currently in open source release. (Source for the bio text)

Interviews at IMERSA 2015 – Recent Challenges

The IMERSA Summit 2015 was intense, fascinating, and gave me a fresh breath of air of where fulldome is headed. Each of the presentations/panels were well prepared and technical problems were solved quickly. And the amount of attendees is just at that equilibrium where you can still meet a fair amount of people.

I ran into many people that are clearly passionate about fulldome and it was inspiring to hear their unique perspectives and experiences. So I realized that I should document a slice of these conversations with one interview question:
What challenges have you recently faced?

  • AJ Christensen – Visualization Programmer / Advanced Visualization Lab, National Center for Supercomputing App.
  • Matthew Mascheri – President & CEO / Dome3D
  • Aaron Bradbury – CG Supervisor / NSC Creative
  • Brad Thompson – Lead Animator / Spitz Inc.
  • Mike Schmitt – Digital Media Supervisor / California Academy of Sciences
  • Ron Proctor – Production Supervisor / Clark Planetarium
  • Michael Daut – Director of Show Production & Marketing / Evans & Sutherland
  • Tom Casey – Creative Director / Home Run Pictures
  • Nina Wise – Producer & Director / The Kepler Story
  • Jim Kachelries – Animator / Morehead Planetarium
  • Dominic St-Amant – Video Lead / Société des Arts Technologiques (SAT)
  • Ka Chun Yu – Curator of Space Science / Denver Museum of Nature & Science
  • Maciej Ligowski – Program Coordinator / Creative Planet
  • Ty Owen – Manager of Theater Programs / COSI Planetarium
  • Jenny Shipway – Planetarium Manager / Winchester Science Centre & Planetarium
  • Carolyn Sumners – Vice President of Astronomy and Physics / Houston Museum of Natural Science
  • Gord Harris – R&D / Christie Digital Systems

Update: May 13, 2015 – Check out this excellent video of the IMERSA Summit 2015 Highlights, which showcases clips from many of my favorite talks. It gives a really great synopsis of what the conference is all about. You can also watch the direct video recordings from the conference.

Interactive 360 Video – NASA Goddard Space Flight Center


A while back we visited NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center to shoot 360 video for our recently released planetarium show From Dream to Discovery: Inside NASA. So when 360Rize approached us about writing an article to look behind the scenes, we realized that we could share an interactive video where you can control the perspective.

Watch the Interactive 360 Video

Experience it within a Web browser, iPhone, Android phone, Google Cardboard, and Oculus Rift.

If you’re curious to learn more about my experience in shooting 360 video while at Goddard, then be sure to check out the interview too. I share some details about why shooting 360 video for a planetarium dome requires a unique approach. You can also view the whole photo album from our trip to Goddard.

Fulldome Interviews: Shane Mecklenburger – Art/Science Course at OSU


Teaching 3D animation is no simple task. Especially if the center of interest is astronomy and fulldome! So in September 2013, I was asked to teach my astronomy visualization techniques as a visiting artist at OSU.

Shane Mecklenburger is the 3D animation professor of a class called “The End & the Beginning of Everything”, which received a Battelle Endowment. Participating OSU astronomers and astrophysicists paired with the animation students to create a dialogue and help inspire their artwork.

It’s interesting to note that Shane wanted to be careful to not focus on purely data visualization. Instead he wanted the students to use the techniques to make their own artwork inspired by real astronomy and astrophysics research. This allowed the students the creative freedom to go in any direction, with the foundation of astronomy to work from. Since I’ve spent every working day for years creating outer space imagery, it was a natural fit to give a few technical workshops.

The work of the students will be exhibited at the Adler Planetarium in Chicago sometime in 2014 or 2015. They have also been experimenting with fisheye rendering and viewing them in the OSU Smith Laboratory Planetarium, which was recently refurbished with a 2.6k projection system.

In the first workshop we covered star fields, galaxy fields, and close-up fluid suns. Then in the second workshop we covered 3D nebulae, hall of mirrors, and DomeAFL installation. It was a wonderful experience to share my techniques with students and see them learn so quickly.

Class Description

The End & the Beginning of Everything is a collaborative art-science initiative between the OSU Departments of Art and Astronomy, the University of Chicago Department of Astrophysics, Chicago’s Adler Planetarium and the Advanced Computing Center for the Arts and Design (ACCAD). Accelerating technologies are amplifying astronomers’ ability to model and observe, expanding our understanding of life and the universe. This initiative guides young artists in creatively interpreting astronomical research for a public contemporary art exhibition.


Interview with Shane Mecklenburger:
3D Animation Professor at OSU

Over the years, I’ve noticed a gradual increase in the offerings of college classes that focus on astronomy art or fulldome. So I’d like to interview Shane and hear his thoughts about this experience.

Can you share a little about yourself as an artist and teacher?
Lately my projects are exploring exchange and simulation. I’m also interested in the origins and effects of science and technology, which are often tangled up with real or imagined conflict. I teach courses on cross-disciplinary collaboration and new media art in the Art & Technology area in the Department of Art at The Ohio State University. One of my courses is Experimental 3D Animation, and another is called ArtGames, which is about using games as a format for making artwork. Also, this semester I’m teaching a new graduate level seminar I developed called APPROACHING SYSTEMS.

What inspired you to create a class combining 3D animation and astronomy?
I was working on a project called The End & The Beginning of Everything, where I’m collaborating with astronomers who make simulations of supernova explosions. It occurred to me this would be fun to do with my Experimental 3D Animation class, so I wrote a grant to connect them with astronomers at OSU to make artworks based on their research.

You mentioned to me that visualizing orbiting planets was a default starting point for the students. Once you were able to break the students of that, how have their perspectives changed in terms of what to visualization? Was there a tipping point?
I guess the tipping point was when I banned spheres from their animations! I did it after the first project, as a challenge to get them thinking in more abstract ways. The point of the course is to make video artworks that aren’t simply science visualizations. So the course is meant to develop the non-literal, symbolic dimension of students’ art making abilities while learning about astronomy.

Do you think this class has changed how the students perceive astronomy?
I suspect it might have, to differing degrees depending on the student. It’s hard not to come away with a new perspective after spending time at an actual astronomy research facility, talking to astronomers, and coming to understand the phenomena and theories they’re researching. I know it happened for me.

What has been challenging in teaching this class?
Just about everything! Many of the students had no experience with 3D animation and we were working with very advanced animation techniques like dynamics and fluid simulations. We were also making sound tracks, and using a render farm to produce fulldome masters, so the technical hurdles were extreme, and I was learning most of the fulldome techniques myself on the fly. Dealing with these kinds of problems are what make teaching fun for me, and I hope they also demonstrate for students how complicated and unpredictable this kind of work can be.

What do you hope the students will take from the course?
Three things: First, I hope they come away with artwork they’re proud of. I also hope students emerge with a better sense of their own unique creative approach, style and voice. Finally, I hope they come away with a sense of the special challenges and importance of cross-disciplinary collaboration.

Do you think a fulldome specific class at OSU has merit?
Absolutely. As a pilot/test, I feel this course has demonstrated that, while there are still technical challenges to sort out, the interest is there from both students and faculty.

Student Artworks